The international Ranking-O-Mania affected every country including those nearly absent from those rankings 1. Countries like Egypt and Morocco apply such different models as the grant-based approach 2 encouraged by the World Bank or the LMD system promoted by some member states of the European Union; moreover they follow certain scripts, such as modifying the role of the state in the administration and financing of higher education, the participation of external actors in the reform process and different forms of privatization Musselin, How these reforms affect the distribution within the university system and the relation between those who are inside and who are outside the system is not clear yet.
The State as the guarantor for quality has been replaced by independent accreditation bodies.
Free transfer, limited mobility: A decade of higher education reform in Egypt and Morocco
Structural financial funding is substituted by calls for application and special funds that distribute money along the lines of socioeconomic demands and political conditionality. Research centers are renamed in centers of excellence, universities categorized in elite and non-elite universities. There is a deep diversification process on the way — as much in discourse, as in practice, that reshapes the university in Europe and along its borders.
While it is intriguing that similar receipts are applied in very different socioeconomic environments, we will focus here on the question how this internationalization emerged on the agenda in Egypt and Morocco and how it was implemented. The debate on the crisis of higher education started already in the s when universities in the less oil rich countries witnessed the first signs of overcrowding.
Still, little was done until the end of the s when both countries started their last and still ongoing reform of higher education. This Committee drew up an action plan that was adopted in by a National Conference. Since the beginning of the s higher education reform emerged as a priority issue in several international organizations. After the fall of the Berlin wall, the countries of Eastern Europe had to restructure their education systems and were in high demand of receipts for reform. Through the international conferences that followed up on these reports, policymakers from development countries like Morocco and Egypt gained expertise and fresh ideas for education reform 3.
Still the agenda-setting is a process that was shaped by both national and international factors and only their combination can explain the timing of higher education reform and its final results. It was clear that no reform could pass without the support of this party.
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While the palace and the USFP agreed on the urgency of higher education reform, they disagreed on the appropriate solutions. However during the s a couple of events occurred that helped to produce a narrative on this crisis of higher education, a narrative both actors could agree on. Initially created by the king to address the problem of unemployment, it quickly developed into a forum of interaction with the opposition parties.
The CNJA first addressed the subject of unemployment, but soon stressed the importance of education reform. Especially higher education should become more adapted to the job market, it should be reformed along the lines of a market driven economy.
This report recommended the introduction of tuition fees in the higher education sector 4. For a long time the principale of free education had been the major point of discord between the king and the opposition. Already in King Hassan II aimed to reconsider the introduction of tuition fees to alleviate the financial burden of higher education on the State, but the nationalist Istiqlal party and the socialist USFP opposed these demands.
They mobilized against the financial restriction imposed on the university with the implementation of a structural adjustment program during the s. Consequently the opposition parties witnessed the report as an opportunity to demand more power in any future reform project and the repartition of government responsibilities Kohstall, b. This fight put the language choice, a question that also preoccupied education policies since Independence, again on the agenda. But the last reform in which consisted in partial arabisation of the science curriculum in secondary schools put an undeniable burden on higher education.
From , the university had to cope with students that had been taught mathematics and physics in Arabic and not in French as it continued to be taught at the university. This narrative revolves around three major subjects: the question of employability, the question of public financing and the question of language. The king and his opposition converge on the fact that these issues are the ones to be resolved by any higher education reform.
At the same time the debate on the reform is reduced to these three issues. A process of framing begins that paves the way for reform. The university has a different legacy and the reform emerges in a different political s etting.
What is similar however is that the crisis is also framed in terms that have little to do with the performance of the university. They also evolve around political choices and a rather diffuse agenda of internationalization. The debate is dominated by the problem of overcrowding, especially after the 9 th year of secondary education was sacked. Another issue is privatization, especially after the authorization of private universities in The debate on higher education is more technical from its very beginning.
Trends between African and European Institutions
Before the World Bank started to prepare the Higher Education Enhancement Program it had attributed a grant in for the reform of the Faculties of Engineering. In this pilot project, the Bank introduced some of the models that should later be used in the HEEP: e. Some of the professors that were confronted with this reform emerged later as the agenda-setters of HEEP. In this manual he describes overcrowding as the major burden of Egyptian universities: In the absence of an increase in government resources overcrowding would have contributed to a decrease in the quality of higher education.
The country produces too many graduates without preparing them for the job market. In international comparison there are too many philosophers and social scientists, but not enough engineers, Egypt would have a great potential in terms of human resources, but it would not make use of it Elmahdy, These reports — feed by statistics — reduce the university to figures and facts. The authorization of private universities meant a major challenge for a country that garantuees free education in its Constitution.
Therefore, when the law was passed in , the debate was only at its beginning. For the government the new universities are only an add-on to the mainly public universities. Their programs should be limited to those not offered by public universities, but in reality these institutions offer the en vague program most in demand on the job market medicine, pharmacy, information and bio technology, engineering. The public universities, in their struggle for their faculty that improves its salaries through teaching at the private universities, are pushing now for a second privatization through the introduction of special programs in foreign language or online learning programs.
The mushrooming of private universities in Egypt changed facts on the ground. While government officials insisted till the beginning of the on the right to free education, the growing competition between private and public education for students and teachers persuaded many that there was finally no alternative to liberalize higher education. Internationalizing State universities became the only exit to deal with the growing gap between the public and the private.
Holding up in theory to free education, the government kept tight control over all of its higher education institutions. It put forward measures to increase quality and international reform receipts such as the establishment of a quality assurance agency as the new references for reform. Instead of producing a clear cut analysis of the weaknesses of its higher education system it searched for an exit through the application of measures from best practice countries and the international agenda for higher education.
In truth it is an ongoing process that is recycled each time when crucial reform steps are undertaken. At one of the cutting point of the debate on the crisis, round tables are set up to produce expert studies, collect statistics and draft a reform program. In the age of democratization this practice is also used in authoritarian regimes. The later adjust in fact to international norms such as participatory decision making through the use of councils, commissions, committees and national conferences Kohstall, a. Still the process had its limit in terms of redistribution in power.
It rather strengthened those in place and enabled them to co-opt reform-orientated actors from within the university. Participating in the daily life of a research group will encourage and inspire students to pursue a scientific career. The program also includes non-laboratory activities, social programs, general scientific training, discussions and interactions with scientists of different cultures and origins.
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You are invited to participate as an Amgen Scholar for one summer only. This ensures that each summer a new cohort of Amgen Scholars in Europe will have the opportunity to benefit from this type of hands-on research experience. Yes and No. You are invited to participate as an Amgen Scholar at a college or university in the region of the world where you are currently enrolled and intend to receive your undergraduate degree. For example, students enrolled in an university in the U.
However, all students can apply to an Amgen Scholar Program in Japan. An official academic transcript is an official document that summarizes a student's academic progress and performance to date, and should include the university and course title, alongside grades for each module taken. You will probably need to ask your university to provide you with one and it may take a while to produce. Tollebeek, J. Taine's Periodization of French History. Ricuperati, G.